Tag Archives: GIS

History of Open Geometry Exchange

 Investigation into the history of open geometry exchange for a better understanding of the origins of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and its relationship to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), relational database specifications, and ontologies. 

Organizational Structure by Mike Bergman


Slides to advocate the Open Floor Plan Display Project and the development of a Floorplan Markup Language, in collaboration with the Building Service Performance Project ,  were presented at Ontolog Summit 2009 Symposium, Towards Ontology-based Standards, held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Summit organized by Steve Ray and Peter Yim.

1984 The development of the Standard Exchange of Product Data (STEP) begins as a successor of IGES, SET and VDA-FS

 1991 GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library (GMP)
1991 US Government transferred responsibility for non-military component of ARPANET to the National Science Foundation (NSF). NSF lifted restrictions on commercial use of the network.


1992 Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF)

1993 European Process Industries STEP Technical Liaison Executive (EPISTLE) founded
1993 Organization for Structured Information Standards (OASIS) founded
1993 Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) founded

1994/95 ISO published the initial release of STEP as international standards including the following parts on which the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) depend:
Written in EXPRESS (ISO 10303-11)
Exchange structure in Part 21 physical file (ISO 10303-21)
Shape representation adopted from ISO 10303-42 and ISO 10303-43.
3D design is controlled by the AP203 Configuration


1995 International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) founded
1995 JavaScript spawned
1995 X/Open introduces the UNIX 95 single specification

1997 Object Management Group (OMG) releases Universal Modeling Language (UML)
1997 XML is compiled by a working group of 11 members supported by 150-member Interest Group

Layout showing major ISP in 1998 by Bill Cheswick

1998 XML 1.0 becomes a W3C Recommendation
1998 Google arrives
1998 Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) are commercially exploited, database access uses the STEP Standard Data Access Interface SDAI (ISO 10303-22:1998)
1998 eSPECS development begins
1998 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names & Numbers (ICANN)


1999 OASIS aecXML for Architecture, Engineering and Construction working group formed
1999 ISO 11179 Information Technology, Metadata Registries (MDR) first published

2000 OASIS XML Conformance TC Closes
2000 W3 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)

2001 Creative Commons Founded
2001 VerticalNet was the first eCommerce company to use ontologies to map between disparate databases to achieve a interoperability in B2B.

2002 Ontolog Forum mailing list created (May), then organization chartered (September)
2002 gbXML.org site is created to host and further stimulate the development of green building schema

2003 EPISTLE took over the work of ISO 10303-221. For modelling-technical reasons OSC/Caesar in Norway proposed ISO 15926, thereby writing the integration model in 15926, Part 2.
2003 OASIS Open Building Information Exchange (oBIX) begins
2003 W3C publishes Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
2003 Single UNIX Specification standardized as ISO 9945. Solaris 9.0 E ships. Linux 2.6 kernel released

2004 OASIS Common Alerting Protocol v1.0
2004 W3 RDF/XML Syntax Specification
2004 W3 OWL Web Ontology Language
2004 ISO 1117 Information Technology Metadata Registries v2

In 2004, when it came to translating data from one model to another, all the data could not be translated due to lack of place-holders for that data


2005 AJAX asynchronous loading of JavaScript and XML content
2005 Google Maps goes live, Google Earth unveiled
2005 IFC2x Platform Specification, ISO/PAS 16739

2006 OASIS UnitsML begins
2006 OGC Geography Markup Language (GML)
2006 OGC cityGML
2006 OASIS ebXML Business Process Specification Schema
2006 OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element v1.0

2007 ISO 10303-28: STEP-XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) to represent EXPRESS schema
2007 POSC/Caesar and ANSI Reference Data Libraries merge, ISO 15926-4 is signed
2007 OASIS Web Services Context (WS-Context) v1.0
2007 IFC references back to ISO 10303-41 and ISO 10303-42
2007 National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) released
2007 International Framework for Dictionaries (IFD) standardized as ISO 12006 IFD in a Nutshell


Google acquires Sketchup and launches 3D Warehouse
2007 319 GNU packages hosted on the official GNU development site

OmniClass formed from ISO TC59/SC13/WG2 to look at classification a different way

 2007 US National Building Information Modeling Standard (NBIMS) v1 published by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI), now building SMART alliance (bSa).

Common Operating Picture, Golden Gate Safety Network

2008 SVG Tiny published as a W3C Recommendation for small portable devices
2008 W3 Geolocation API Public Working Draft
2008 W3 SPARQL Query Language for RDF and XML
2008 OGC Observations and Measurements
2008 COBIE Construction Operations Building Information Exchange
2008 CERN Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML)

2009 Ontolog Summit, Toward Ontology-based Standards at NIST

from The Eurozone – A Structural Assessment




A Trail through SMARTcodes

Imagine taking a piece of door hardware all the way through the code review process: from an assembly of parts, to a hardware set, to a door, to an egress corridor, to a building, to the local building authority, the state, the country, and the world.


80 Series, Narrow Design, Sargent Co.


American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Builders Hardware Manufacturing Association (BHMA) ANSI/BHMA A156.3-2001 establishes requirements for exit devices and trim.

Hardware reinforcing in accordance to ANSI, SDI, NFPA standards requirements

Sargent’s Newest Innovations
“80 Series, Accept Nothing but the Facts!
Withstands Real-Life Abuse!
It’s the strongest, most durable exit device in the industry today! The SARGENT 80 Series continues to exceed ANSI/ BHMA Grade 1 standards.”


Laws or rules prescribed by an authority to regulate conduct.  State or local construction regulations incorporate codes and referenced standards.

“The International Building Code 2006 states that entrance doors in Occupancy…. Access control locking hardware must conform to the door’s fire rating…”

fire door

Contact PH Insulations about – Fire rated doors


Passes positive pressure test standards UL 10C, UBC 7-2, and UBC 7-4
Door tests performed in accordance with UL 10B, ASTM E2074, NFPA 80, and NFPA
Tested according to NFPA 252 and UL10(b) and labeled up to 3 hours


Arlington County Virginia
Accessibility: 2003 ICC/ANSI A117.1
Building: 2003 International Building Code
Electrical: 2002 National Electrical Code (NFPA 70)
Energy Conservation: 2003 International Residential Code
Fire Prevention: 2003 International Fire Code
Fuel Gas: 2003 International Fuel Gas Code
Mechanical: 2003 International Mechanical Code
Plumbing: 2003 International Plumbing Code
Residential: 2003 International Residential Code


Department of Community Planning, Housing & Development
Planning Research and Analysis
Planning Division Applications & Forms Library
Construction Inspections, Permits, Certificate of Occupancy, Code Enforcement


Virginia Community Association Network – Understanding Building Codes
VBCOA Virginia Building Code Officials Association  Battlefield Chapter Region V
International Building Code General: Carolyn Majowka represents Arlington County


Map of VBCOA Regions

ICC current version “The existing code language fails to address the issue of hardware that is required as part of the door assembly to satisfy egress and security requirements …”

FEMA 453 / May 2006 Risk Management Series Safe Rooms and Shelters “The occupancy loads in the building codes have historically been developed ….. Source: Arlington County After-Action Report Designated entry/exit access …”


Map3  Map4

Maps from the International Code Council

“The International Code Council, a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct…”

smart3  ecodes


ICC Online | SMARTcodes



 SmartCodeStudio by TechnoRiver


QR Codes and Semacodes are similar in the sense that they’re squarish. ShotCodes, appropriately enough, mimic a bulls-eye. Unlike normal barcodes, these two-dimensional “matrix codes” can store much more data, aside from simple numbers. From Three Formats Promise to Turn Your Mobile into a Barcode Reader

smart 2

i-Nigma codes are smart codes that act as links to websites. What makes them so amazing is how they are used. Refer to mydigitallife for a step by step explanation.


Museum  FireStation  11520000transportationwe.jpg








May 11, 2007, Wayland, Massachusetts.

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC?) has issued a Request for Quotes/Call for Participation (RFQ/CFP) for the OGC Web Services, Phase 5 (OWS-5) Interoperability Initiative, a testbed to advance OGC’s open geospatial interoperability framework. Based on sponsor requirements, the OWS-5 initiative is organized as six threads over two initiative phases:

1. Sensor Web Enablement (SWE)
2. Geo Processing Workflow (GPW)
3. Information Communities’ Semantics (ICS)
5. Agile Geography
6. Compliance Testing (CITE)

CAD-GIS-BIM thread of OWS-5 is detailed in Annex B (starting on page 59)


SOURCE: Earth Observation Magazine


SOURCE: Spatial News


SOURCE: CAD Search System in Purdue News